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Wild Foodies of Philly  FIELD GUIDE!


EDIBLE WILD TREES - GENERAL INFORATION SOURCES   

 

ALSO SEE: http://www.wildfoodies.org/ByEdiblePart.htm

 



EDIBLE TREE “LEAVES”
 
Caution: some leafs may only be edible when young or cooked
 

·        http://www.arthurleej.com/a-EatingTrees.html

·        http://www.wildplantforager.com/blog/eating-like-a-giraffe-5-trees-with-edible-spring-leaves

·        http://willowhavenoutdoor.com/featured-wilderness-survival-blog-entries/5-trees-every-survivalist-should-know-why

 



EVERGREEN TIPS, NEEDLES, & TEAS
 Caution: Do not mistake for toxic Yew evergreens: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxus_baccata

 

·        http://wildfoodsandmedicines.com/fir-hemlock-and-spruce-tips

·        http://www.eattheweeds.com/pines-not-just-for-breakfast-anymore-2

·        http://www.prepperguidesuk.com/edible-plants-pine-trees

·        http://tacticalintelligence.net/blog/how-to-eat-a-pine-tree.htm

·        http://www.practicalprimitive.com/skillofthemonth/pineneedletea.html

 



EDIBLE INNER TREE BARK (CAMBIUM)

 

·        http://www.americanforests.org/magazine/article/edible-trees-foraging-food-forests/

·        http://mentalfloss.com/article/22597/tree-bark-eating-beginners



TREE NUTS

 

·        http://www.motherearthnews.com/nature-and-environment/foraging-for-nuts-zmaz88sozgoe.aspx

·        http://www.food-skills-for-self-sufficiency.com/wild-nuts.html

·        http://extension.psu.edu/business/start-farming/news/2010/growing-nuts-in-pa


TAPPING TREES FOR SUGAR WATER >>>
 

Maple (Sugar, Black, Red, & Silver), Birch, Hickory, Sycamore, Walnut, & Ash.  Need access to one mature tree (at least 12 inches in diameter)

 

VERY INTERESTING ARTICLE FROM: http://www.judyofthewoods.net/forage/tree_sap.html

 

·        http://www.eattheweeds.com/maples-how-sweet-it-is-2

·        http://www.tapmytrees.com/faq.html

·        http://homestead-honey.com/2014/03/10/beyond-maple-syrup-tapping-black-walnut-trees

·        http://www.syracuse.com/food/index.ssf/2014/04/move_over_maple_syrup_researchers_in_syracuse_are_tapping_black_walnut_trees_and.htm

·        http://wildfoodism.com/2014/02/04/22-trees-that-can-be-tapped-for-sap-and-syrup

 


TREE SAP SOURCES: https://wildfoodism.com/2014/02/04/22-trees-that-can-be-tapped-for-sap-and-syrup/
Maple Family (including Boxelder & Gorosoe)
Walnut (black, white/butternut, English, & Japanese/heartnut) 
Birch Family (including Ironwood/hophornbeam) 
Sycamore 

•         Sugar maple (Acer saccharum)
The sugar maple yields the highest volume and concentration of sap, making it a superior candidate for tapping.  Its sugar content is approximately 2.0%.

•         Black maple (Acer nigrum)
Black maples produce as much sweet sap as sugar maples.  The trees closely resemble sugar maples and can be distinguished by their leaves.  Black maples tend to have leaves with three major lobes, while leaves from sugar maples have five lobes.

•         Red maple (Acer rubrum)
Sap yields from red maples are generally lower than those from sugar maples, although some tapping operations utilize only red maples.  The trees bud out earlier in the spring, which may reduce syrup quality near the end of sugaring season.

•         Silver maple (Acer saccharinum)
Like red maples, silver maples bud out earlier in the spring and have a lower sugar content than sugar maples (1.7% compared to 2.0%).

•         Norway maple (Acer platanoides)
Native to Europe, Norway maples are now considered invasive throughout much of the United Sates.  They are not as sweet as sugar maples, yet can be tapped regardless.

•         Boxelder (Acer negundo)
Also known as Manitoba maple, boxelders can be found growing in urban areas and along roadsides.  They’re not recommended as a first choice for sugar production, although maple producers in the Canadian prairies rely almost exclusively on boxelders for their sap.  Research suggests that boxelders may yield only half the syrup of typical sugar maples.

•         Bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum)
Bigleaf maple is the main species of maple growing between central California and British Columbia.  Native Americans have tapped these trees for centuries, and although the sugar content and sap flow are less than those from sugar maples, these trees can still provide a commercially viable source of syrup for the Pacific Coast.

•         Canyon maple, big tooth maple (Acer grandidentatum)
These trees are found primarily throughout the Rocky Mountain states.  They also grow in Texas, where they are referred to as Uvalde bigtooth maples.  The sugar content is comparable to that of sugar maples, but the volume produced is much less.

•         Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum)
Rocky Mountain maples are native to western North America, and have been used traditionally by various groups, including the Plateau Natives.

•         Gorosoe (Acer mono)
Gorosoe, which translates to “The tree that is good for the bones,” is the most commonly tapped maple tree in Korea.  The sap is usually 
consumed fresh as a beverage, and not boiled down to a syrup.

•         Butternut, white walnut (Juglans cinerea)
The butternut produces a sap that yields roughly 2% sugar – similar to sugar maples.  The timing and total volume of sap are also comparable to sugar maples.

•         Black walnut (Juglans nigra)
The black walnut tree is a valuable timber species, whose sap flows in autumn, winter, and spring.  It is more common in the Midwest than in the Northeastern United States.

•         Heartnut (Juglans ailantifolia)
A cultivar of Japanese walnuts, heartnuts have sugar contents comparable to sugar maples, but produce much less sap.

•         English walnut (Juglans regia)
These are the walnuts commonly eaten and purchased from supermarkets.  They are not typically found in the Eastern United States, but rather are grown most abundantly in California.  English walnut trees can be tapped successfully, especially when subjected to a freezing winter and spring.

•         Paper birch (Betula papyrifera)
The paper birch has a lower sugar content than sugar maple (less than 1%), but is the sweetest of the birch trees.

•         Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)
The yellow birch tree has been found to have a higher mineral composition, lower sugar content, and a higher ORAC value (measure of antioxidant capacity) than sugar maple.

•         Black birch (Betula lenta)
Native to eastern North America, black birch is most popular for its use in making birch beer.  And, as this list suggests, the black birch can be tapped.

•         River birch (Betula nigra)
Found growing abundantly in the southeastern United States, and planted as an ornamental in the Northeast, the river birch can successfully be tapped.

•         Gray birch (Betula populifolia)
Gray birch is more of a shrub than a tree, but may be tapped if it grows large enough.

•         European white birch (Betula pendula)
Native to Europe, and grown as an ornamental in urban and suburban areas of the United States, European white birch can be tapped.

•         Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis)
Native to North America, the sycamore tree has a lower sugar content than sugar maple, yet is reported to produce a syrup that exudes a butterscotch flavor.

•         Ironwood, hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana)
These trees produce a sap later in the spring, although the sugar content and volume are much less than those from birch trees.

And there you have it – a list of 22 trees that can be tapped.  This is by no means an exhaustive list, as other trees surely produce a sap that can be extracted through tapping.  It is, however, a good representation of the most commonly tapped trees, including those that have been used traditionally for centuries, and some that are just recently gaining in popularity.